postheadericon Information technology in designing high-performance equipment for biomass compacting

Dmitro Viktorovich Rindyuk, Svyatoslav Yuriyovich Lementar

Abstract:

The basic principles and methods of constructing a mathematical model for the processes of particular materials processing are presented in this paper. An example of the practical application of the developed model in the technology of biomass extrusion, which is used for the production of fuel pellets, is considered. A mathematical model of the process for particular materials extrusion is developed and a new approach to the extrusion granulator unit design is offered with the developed methods taken as a basis. The effect of technological and design factors of extrusion granulator unit to the extrusion process regularity are also studied.

 Keywords: design information technology, mathematical modeling, particulates, granulation, fuel pellets.

  1. Introduction

Food processing industry has recently faced a problem of rational use of waste products such as sunflower husk, straw, brewer’s grain, wood chips, etc. It is advisable to use this waste as biomass fuel, or feed compound, etc. Transporting these materials is considered economically unjustified because of their small bulk density. This fact becomes an agent for bulk density increase of the materials through compression (briquetting, embaling, granulation, etc.) The analysis of various compression technologies showed that the granulation technology is the most rational one as it can be used for continuous product processing. It also allows obtaining the products of the highest density and versatility (biofuel, feed compounds of different fractions). Granular materials have greater storage stability and better mixture homogeneity. They also better preserve vitamins and trace elements, occupy 2-3 times less space, and are less exposed to environmental influences if compared to bulk materials.

Intensification of particular materials compression processes, which recently has become most noticeable in the field of solid biofuels production, results in more stringent requirements for performance indicators of main technological systems. Therefore, the connection between both design (active zone sizes, shape and speed of the movable elements, etc.) and technological (machine performance, pressure, temperature, physical and mechanical characteristics of the material, etc.) factors should necessarily be considered when designing such machines and devices. The traditional approach to the design of this type of equipment is based on empirical dependences and experimental experience [1] and does not allow quantifying the interference between technological and design factors of processing and structural and mechanical

 

properties of materials. Therefore, applying the modern methods of mathematical modeling to the process of extrusion granulation of particulate materials is considered to be a topical issue.

The analysis of the recent research studies in the field of granulation technology testifies that for the effective designing of the particular technologic equipment it is necessary to take into consideration the structural and mechanical characteristics of the processed materials and in the first place their such rheological properties as elasticity, plasticity and viscosity. Works [2,3] show the principles of mathematical model construction for the granulation process of dispersed materials by extrusion. To increase efficiency of practical use of the given model it is essential to further improve it with the aim to embrace the maximum number of design and technological parameters. Taking into account the broad range of raw materials types, the problem of proper interdependence between main design and technological parameters of a given extrusion unit comes to the front when defining design properties  of the appropriate equipment.

Chema (aticle)

Figure 1. Information technology scheme of designing equipment for extrusion compacting.

The main aim of this work is to develop the design information technology (DIT) of processing equipment for dispersed materials by extrusion as well as to use the developed (DIT) when designing an extrusion granulator unit when applying biomass granulation technology to produce fuel pellets. The article describes the (DIT) type [2]: “mathematical model — intellectual expert system — automatic design system “which is represented in figure 1. (DIT) represents technological extrusion process as a multi-component system of interconnected objects under study: raw material mass, technological equipment elements, mechanic loading, etc.

When examining particular processing technology we use the conception of introducing dispersed mass as a two-phase mixture of the porous or solid granular deformed structure with liquid or gas. To describe the behavior of dispersed mass, the notions of tension, deformation, density and also the velocity of changing these parameters were used.

As a basis of analytical model the momentum retention equation at macro-coordinates was used for:

 


 

Повна версія статті: Journal Food and Environment Safety of the Suceava  University, Year: 2013, volume XII, Issue 2, P. 115-122


 

To loop a system of obtained equations (1-9), it is necessary to define the mode of solid phase deformation (determinant correlation) with corresponding spatial and temporal modes of boundary condition changes. Determinant correlations are taken within a framework of rheological model of elastic, viscous and plastic body. Besides, degree of deformation of a liquid phase is carried out by setting kinetics of volumetric phase content change, determined by filtration mechanism. (7)

Algorithmic model consists of the following main parts:

  • Solution to a specified problem is based upon the principle of application of projecting and grid methods: finite elements to spatial variables and finite-differences by time argument.
  • Calculated algorithms, which realize the most typical extrusion rheological processes of dispersed systems.

The developed algorithms were realized in the form of “PLAST-GRN” programming complex (digital model) [4]. Programming complex is aimed to simulate non-balanced deformation processes of two-phase dispersed structures under given technological mode.

Within the framework of the developed design information technology, to obtain fuel pellets the granulation process of dispersed masses by extrusion was considered [5].

The major impact on the granulation process is made by the granulator design (especially, the holes profile of granulator unit matrix [6,7] and the rheology of the matter being granulated


Повна версія статті: Journal Food and Environment Safety of the Suceava  University, Year: 2013, volume XII, Issue 2, P. 115-122


 

 

4. Conclusion

So, the developed mathematical model gives possibility to define interdependences between main design and technological parameters of pressing granulator taking into account type of raw materials. It is advisable to use the gained results as recommendations in designing granulating equipment.

  1. References
  •  Shtefan J., Behavioral modeling of dispersed system within non-balanced processes in food production. Scientific works of NUFT, #8, pp. 63-66, 2000.
  • Shtefan J., Equipment design information technology for mechanical processing of dispersed materials. International periodic collection of scientific works. Processing of dispersed materials and environments. Theory, research, technology, equipment. Issue #12, Odessa: VOTUM SPA, pp. 72-78, 2002.
  • Shtefan J., Blazhenko S., Constructing analytical model of deformation processes of dispersed materials. International periodic collection of scientific works. Processing of dispersed materials and environments. Theory, research, technology, equipment. Issue #13, Odessa: VOTUM SPA, pp. 26-33, 2003.
  • Ryndiuk D., Shtefan J., Developing method of optimal structural and technological parameters of a press granulator. Scientific works of Odessa NAFT. Ministry for education and science of Ukraine. Odessa. Issue 28.Volume 2. pp. 202-205, 2006.
  • Patent for a useful model #30058 MPK (2006) B01j2/00. The method of determining optimal structural and technological parameters of a press-granulator. Shtefan J., Ryndiuk D.
  • Shtefan J., Zajets J., Ryndiuk D., Deternination of structural and technological parameters of food products processing by cold extrusion. Mixed fodder industry of Ukraine.#5, pp. 16-20, 2006.
  • Shtefan J., Ryndiuk D., Utilizing mathematical models for designing press-granulator unit. Mechanics and informatics. Collection of scientific works of young scientists. Khmelnytskiy. KHNU, pp 172-175, 2005
  • Valentas K., Food engeneering: reference book with calculation samples.Translation from English by Valentas K.,Rotshtein J,Singh P., St.Petersburg, Profession, p. 848, 2004.
  • Fengel D., Vegener G., Woodwork: Translation from English by Obolenskaya A., Elnitskaya P., Under supervision of Doctor of Technical Sciences LeonovichaA., Moscow, Forestry, p. 540, 1988.

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